About ceramic proppant

What is a proppant?
A proppant is a material that will keep a induced hydraulic fracture open, during or following a fracturing treatment and is used to aid the extraction of oil and gas from reservoir rocks, which is mainly used in the hydraulic fracturing process to increase the productivity of natural gas and oil wells. There are currently three types of proppant: quartz sand; resin-coated sand, and ceramic sand(sintered bauxite, which is the strongest)
What is a ceramic proppant?
Ceramic proppant is a kind of eco-friendly material made of ceramic like sintered bauxite. It has higher fracturing strength which is mainly used for downhole support in order to provide an efficient conduit for production of fluid from reservoir to wellbore so that adding output in oil or gas industry.
Ceramic proppant is sintered from bauxite mixed with other additives, and the mineral composition of ceramic proppant is aluminum oxide, silicate and iron - titanium oxide. Ceramic proppant is generally uniform in round shape and character, which makes it owns much higher strength than quartz sand and resin-coated sand so that it is suitable for the fracturing of deep oil and gas stratum with high closure pressure. For the middle and deep well, ceramic proppant can be used to enhance the conductivity as the trailing proppant. Compared to other proppant materials, ceramic proppant has superiority of smoother surface, higher fracturing strength, acid proof &alkali proof, higher conductivity. Nowadays, especially in western oil producing countries such as America, Canada and Russia, ceramic proppant is widely used to replace other proppant materials such as natural quartz sand, glass balls and metal balls. It has been proved that ceramic proppant can increase output of Oil/Gas by 30%-50% and extend the lifetime of Oil field or Gas field.
resin coated sandquartz sand

Why use ceramic proppants ?
Higher initial production rates
Sand and sand-based materials became the most popular type of proppant due to availability and low cost. However, a study of production rates published by the Society of Petroleum Engineers has shown that the additional strength and uniform size and shape of ceramic proppant provide higher performance than other types of proppant. Ceramic proppants cost on average about 25% more than resin-coated sands, but initial production rates on wells fracked with ceramic proppants can be as much as 100% higher than wells using resin-coated or natural sands.
ceramic proppant benefits
Greater conductivity
Ceramic proppants are unique in that each particle is generally uniform in shape and character. That uniformity allows ceramic proppants to provide more productive fractures by enhancing the conductivity channels in the proppants pack, thus improving flow rates
hierarchy of conductivity